The Evolution of the Lottery Industry
The lottery is one of America’s most popular forms of gambling, generating billions of dollars in annual revenues. Despite the low odds of winning, many people continue to play, believing that they can turn those numbers into money and change their lives. While some people do indeed win the lottery, most play for fun or to improve their quality of life. The reality is that the odds of winning are very low and the lottery should be considered a form of entertainment rather than a way to get rich.
Most state lotteries operate as traditional raffles, with the public purchasing tickets for a drawing that takes place at some future date, often weeks or even months away. Over time, however, revenue from these games tends to plateau or even decline, leading the lottery industry to introduce new games and become more aggressive in promoting them. This process is reminiscent of the evolution of other state-regulated industries, such as tobacco and casinos, which were once largely illegal but now are highly profitable and widespread.
In the early days of the American lottery, states used it for everything from paving streets to building churches. By the 1770s, lotteries were so lucrative that they helped finance the establishment of the first English colonies in North America and the development of universities such as Harvard and Yale. In the post-World War II era, as incomes soared and states began to offer larger social safety nets, balancing the budget became more difficult and the idea of raising taxes or cutting services proved unpopular with voters. Lotteries were seen as a solution: They could bring in huge sums seemingly out of thin air, allowing states to maintain their programs without the need for more painful tax increases.
As the lottery evolved in the modern era, it developed broad and deep support among the general public. It also attracted specific constituencies, including convenience store owners (the usual vendors for state lotteries); suppliers to the industry (heavy contributions to the political campaigns of lottery suppliers have been reported); teachers (in states in which a large percentage of proceeds are earmarked for education); and state legislators, who quickly became accustomed to an extra stream of revenue.
The reason the lottery continues to draw so much public interest is that it satisfies human cravings for luck and fantasy. People are wired to have unrealistic optimism when it comes to probability, and the lottery capitalizes on this. Super-sized jackpots not only drive ticket sales, but they also garner lots of free publicity on news sites and TV.
The problem with this is that, as Cohen argues, the lottery is not only a symptom of our cultural insatiability for big wins, but it is also a “scapegoat mechanism designed to defuse the average villager’s deep, inarticulate dissatisfaction with his or her life and direct it against other members of society.” It serves to divert anger at the victims of poverty, racism, and injustice into anger directed at “the lucky few.” The results are often tragic.